One of the lifeless organs of the body is the nail, which has no senses or nerves. The nail is attractive in good and ideal conditions, and in addition to this attractiveness, it also helps human beings to lift objects. For example, when they easily crack or break, it means that the body has possible nutritional problems.
Many people may think of nails as a worthless part of a person’s body, but in fact, nails play a huge role in the beauty of the hands, and doctors can find a number of systemic diseases in people by examining their nails.
In addition to the beauty of the hands, the nails play an important role in the function of the fingers and the protection of the soft tissues of the hands, and most importantly, if the nails become diseased or infected, it will cause severe pain that relieves comfort. Nails, like any other part of the body, are exposed to many pathogens: bacteria, fungi, viruses, chemical and physical agents, etc., and sometimes a pathogen can only invade the nail and It causes disease, and sometimes a disease that affects other parts of the body can spread to the nails. However, nail diseases in general are not very common.
Nails are made up of layers of protein called creatine. Nails help to manipulate objects and protect the sensitive tissue of the fingertips. Each nail is made up of several parts, which are:
1. The main plate or nail plate, this part forms the same surface of the nail that is most exposed.
2- Nail crease, the skin that surrounds the nails on three sides.
3- The nail bed, the skin under the main nail plate.
4 – Cuticle cuticle, the tissue that covers the nail plate at the base of the nail.
5 – Matrix reproductive tissue is the area under the cuticle and nail growth occurs from that part.
6- Lanula Lunula, the crescent-shaped white part that is located at the base of the nail.
Nails grow an average of one-tenth of a millimeter per day, and it takes about 4-6 months for a nail to grow from the site of birth to the tip of the toes. It takes 8 months. Nails grow faster in the dominant hand (the hand we work with the most).
Nail growth also depends on age, season and nutrition. They grow faster in summer than in winter. Nails are permeable, meaning that the liquids that come in contact with the nails are absorbed.
Nail diseases and its abnormalities
Some of the symptoms seen on nails do not require special attention, such as vertical lines that tend to get worse with age, or spots and white lines that usually grow and fade over time. Examples of these changes include:
– White spots
The most common complication in nails is usually caused by weak blows such as hitting the nails on the table or elsewhere. It is more common in people who do manual labor. No need for treatment. These spots grow outward over time.
– Vertical grooves
Increasing age and placing nails in water makes them more prone to thinning and softening. Thinning of the nails causes vertical grooves on them, the use of food sources containing iron and zinc can make the nails harder and prevent such symptoms. Massaging the nails with almond oil also makes the nails firmer and protects them.
– Nail blackening or bruising under the nails
Blood clots under the nails are usually caused by the nail being pounded or compressed on the side of the door or other objects. These bruises go away over time, and sometimes the affected nail may fall out due to the severity of the injury, but there is no need to worry because the new nail will be replaced.
Some other nail abnormalities require attention and follow-up treatment, which are mainly divided into three categories: local, congenital or genetic, and abnormalities associated with skin diseases or systemic diseases. like the:
It is a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection that affects the tissue around the nail and causes pain, swelling, tingling, and redness in these areas. In such a situation, the causative agent of the infection is identified and appropriate treatment with antifungal drugs, bacteria or viruses is selected.
A fungal infection of the nail is not easy to eradicate, a common infection that is often (about 40% of cases) associated with a fungal disease in another part of the body. In this type of infection, oral antifungal medications are usually prescribed for at least 6 weeks for the fingernails and 12 weeks for the toenails.
Another form of treatment is recommended, and that is to prescribe a higher dose for seven days each month for 2-3 months. Topical treatments are also available as newer treatments.
– Separation of the nail from the nail bed
(Onycholysis) In this case, the nail plate separates from its bed. The most common cause of illness is psoriasis or excessive contact with detergents, which can be caused by other factors such as trauma or nail trapping, drug reactions, fungal diseases, and reactions to artificial nails. Typing and working with the keyboard for a long time can also cause such a problem.
It’s not bad to know that about 50% of adults with psoriasis have nail fungus.
– Yellow nail syndrome
Swelling in the hands or breathing of a person, such as chronic bronchitis, may cause yellow or green nails to appear on one or more nails. This symptom is usually accompanied by slower growth of the nails, so shortening the nails every few months is delayed.
– Nail piercing
In this case, the nails look a bit like finger-stitching. This condition can be caused by trauma or may be a complication of diseases such as psoriasis, eczema or arthritis.
– Thickening of nails
The main cause of this abnormality is fungal infections and psoriasis. Trauma and old age may be another reason. The condition of the nail usually returns to normal with treatment.
– Dark nails
In this case, the nails are opaque and opaque, and on their tips there is a dark colored strip. This sign may be a sign of a serious illness such as cancer, congestive heart failure or diabetes. This symptom may also be due to old age.
– Sticky nails
In this case, the nails are bent around the fingers. This condition may be congenital or caused by a lack of oxygen in lung disease.
(Beau’s lines) grooves that are visible across the nail. This problem can be caused by incorrect manicure. These grooves are also seen when nail growth stops due to diseases such as heart attack, measles, mumps, or fever.
– Crescent-shaped lines
(Mees ’lines) Crescent-shaped lines are seen along the lanola. These lines are white and appear in arsenic poisoning.
– Spoon-shaped nails
In this case, the nails are soft, sunken and spoon-shaped. Nails are usually so deep that they can hold a drop of liquid. This abnormality is seen in iron deficiency anemia.
With these specifications and symptoms, if you suspect or suspect you may have a problem, try consulting a general practitioner or dermatologist to make the appropriate diagnosis by making the necessary observations and tests. Don’t forget to remove the nail polish when you go to see your doctor so that you can see the nail.
Remember that the most important thing in nail care is to avoid using nails incorrectly. Do not use them as a tool. Do not scratch or scratch the surrounding skin. Usually when the nails are arranged, the skin at the end of the nail (cuticle) is removed from the nail or cut, which is also not true.
It is better to apply the solutions and substances that you use to soften the skin to the nails as well. Small cuts on the sides of the nail can be a way for bacteria or fungi to enter and cause infection. Infection of the soft tissues adjacent to the paronychia nail, the nails grow slowly and the signs of injury remain on the nails for months.
If your nails are dry and brittle or break and break, when using water, soap and other detergents, use plastic gloves or dishwasher gloves with linen liner and use your hands and nails regularly. Keep yourself moist with moisturizers.
Ways to tighten nails and protect nails
– Keep your nails short and round the tip a little.
– Use nail hardeners but avoid products that use formaldehyde and toluene sulfate. Because these chemicals may cause itching, redness, and irritation of the skin.
– Whenever you wash your hands, use a moisturizer to keep your hands moist after washing.
– When sleeping, moisturize the nails and the skin around them with moisturizers and wear a cotton glove.
– Do not use nail polish cleaners more than twice a month. If you need to remove nail polish from your nails, do not use cleansers that contain acetone, as it may dry out your nails.
– Arrange sensitive and brittle nails for 15-20 minutes after bathing or soaking in lukewarm water, and use moisturizers after sorting.
– Repair nail cuts and cracks with nail glue or a colorless varnish.
A wrinkle infection is a skin around a nail that causes a painful swelling.
Lifestyle: Frequent dipping of hands in water is a risk factor.
Age, sex, genetics: not risk factors.
A skin wrinkle infection that surrounds the fingernails or toenails is called paronychia. Infection causes pain and swelling, which may occur suddenly (months of acute paronychia) or gradually over months (chronic paronychia), depending on the underlying cause. One or more nails may be affected.
Causes of the disease:
Acute paronychia is usually caused by a bacterial infection that enters the nail fold through a cut or slit in the skin. Chronic paronychia is common in people such as cooks who frequently dip their hands in water. The skin around the nails is detached and softened and is usually infected by a yeast organism. A secondary bacterial infection may develop and an acute paronychia may develop. Some people are at increased risk of paronychia with reduced resistance to infection, such as those with diabetes.
Symptoms of the disease:
Symptoms of acute paronychia usually appear within 24 hours of infection and include:
– Pain and swelling on one side of the nail
– The formation of pus around the nails
If acute paronychia is not treated, the nail may come off the bed, eventually falling out. Symptoms of chronic paronychia develop over several months. This condition can cause some discomfort and swelling, but there is usually no pus formation. Eventually, the affected nail becomes slightly thickened, horizontal streaks form, and a brown discoloration occurs.
Treatment of the disease: The doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics for acute paronychia. In severe cases, the pus may be drained under local anesthesia. Chronic paronychia may be treated with an antifungal cream. But if there is a secondary infection, your doctor may prescribe stronger antifungal medications and oral antibiotics. Acute paronychia improves within a few days of treatment. In the case of chronic paronychia, it may take several weeks.
To prevent chronic paronychia, you should dry your hands thoroughly after washing, and wear plastic gloves with a cotton lining when your hands are in the water.
Treatment of sunken toenails
Ingrown toenail occurs when the toenail grows into the skin.
This condition can be quite painful and infectious, so it’s important to get immediate care as soon as you notice a sunken nail.
The growth and penetration of the nail into the flesh and the underlying soft tissue creates this condition, which is more common in foot pains. Tight shoes and improper nail correction are some of the causes. The disease is painful and the risk of infection is high.
* Splinter Hemorrhages:
As a result of rupture, the capillaries of the nail bed are created. The most common cause is trauma that occurs during the day due to improper handling of the nails and during daily work. They are not very clinically important, they just make them look ugly.
* Fungal infections Onychomycosis:
Fungi cause nearly half of all nail diseases and are not easy to treat. In these cases, debris particles appear in different colors under the nail, which, while separating the nail from its bed (onycholysis), depending on the type of fungus, change the color of the nail, mainly to white, yellow, brown or black. As the fungus grows, the texture and appearance of the nails change. If left untreated and with further debris, the nail plate will be completely separated from the nail bed.
Improper personal hygiene and improper pedicures or manicures are predisposing factors. Onychomycosis is up to four times more common in the toes.
Prevention is much easier than cure. To prevent this, you need to keep your nails dry and clean at all times. Socks should be changed regularly. Damage to the skin and tissues around the nails should also be avoided. Manicure should not be removed during pedicure.
In fact, it is a benign skin tumor caused by a viral infection that can affect the skin under or around the nail, resulting in deformity or destruction of the nail plate. The disease is painful in many cases.
* Paronychia nail microbial infection:
The disease is caused by bacteria entering the soft tissue around the nail. The skin that covers the base and sides of the nail has a protective role against the penetration of bacteria, fungi, and so on. Anything that damages the skin, such as bumps, chewing nails, or removing cuticles, can lead to bacterial infiltration and infection in the tissue. In case of red infection, pain, swelling and heat can be seen in the tissue around the nail.
Pseudomonas Pseudomonas Infection:
Pseudomonas is a bacterium that can invade nails. The bacterium may grow on natural nails or between natural and artificial nails (implanted). The presence of moisture helps the bacteria to penetrate and grow. The characteristic feature of this infection is a change in the color of the nails to green. As the disease progresses, the green color becomes more prominent, and the nail plate may become detached from its bed.
* Psoriasis Psoriasis:
It is a chronic and widespread skin condition that may spread to the nails. In this case, the surface of the nail becomes uneven, wavy and has many small depressions. Nail discoloration from yellow to reddish brown or discoloration of the nail may also be seen.
8 Nail Chewing:
It is very difficult to break this habit. It is more common in children, which often resolves with age. But the presence of this habit in adults is associated with anxiety disorders. Chewing nails not only changes the appearance of the nails, but also transmits bacteria from mouth to mouth and vice versa. It also damages the skin around the nails, allowing bacteria to penetrate and spread inside.
* Onychogryposis thick and screwed nails:
Thickened nails are said to be twisted in and out. It is not a disease in itself, but it is mainly caused by old age, nail biting, fungal infections and some diseases such as diabetes.
In fact, it is the decay of the nails. In this case, the growth of the nail is so slow that there is no free edge of the nail. Also, the nail loses its luster and becomes dull. In some cases, the nails are broken and fall off completely. The cause of this condition is matrix damage, which usually occurs during some severe illnesses.
Excessive nail thickening is usually caused by old age, nail biting, fungal infections, and some diseases such as diabetes.
Beau’s Lines Bio Lines:
As you know, nails are made in the matrix. Some factors, such as trauma, malnutrition, chemotherapy, and basically any event or serious physical or mental illness, can interfere with the matrix’s ability to build nails. As a result, the nails that are made during the illness are different in appearance, texture and composition. For this reason, it is seen in the form of a transverse line, a little darker and also depressed, which is called the bio line. Since this incomplete nail has already been produced and formed, it cannot be restored to its original and healthy state, but is pushed out as the nail grows. But what is important is that the cause is that it needs to be examined by a doctor.
* Koilonychia nail-shaped nail:
Thin nails, with prominent edges that are concave. Iron deficiency is one of the causes of this deformity.
8 Melanonychia Dark Nail Lines:
There are vertical lines that are seen in gray, brown or black. They are caused by increased activity or the number of matrix pigment cells. See your doctor right away.
* Hematoma hemorrhage:
The impact on the nail causes the capillaries of the nail bed to rupture. The resulting blood is trapped between the nail plate and its bed, forming a hematoma. Hematomas can cause nails to fall apart. It can also cause infection, as the hematoma tissue is suitable for the growth of bacteria and fungi. Spontaneous absorption of hematoma may take some time and sometimes causes the nail to deform.